Russian grammar

Singular and plural nouns – Russian grammar

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Э́то магази́н.
This is a shop.
Э́то магази́ны.
These are shops.

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Э́то маши́на.
This is a car.
Э́то маши́ны.
These are cars.

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Э́то окно́.
This is a window.
Э́то о́кна.
These are windows.

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THE NOMINATIVE PLURAL

General rule: Noun endings change according to gender and number. The nominative plural endings are as follows:

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masculine

-Ы (-И)

студе́нт (the student) – студе́нты
день (the day) дни

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feminine

-Ы (-И)

ла́мпа (the lamp) – ла́мпы
а́рмия (the army) – а́рмии
но́вость (the piece of news) – но́вости

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neuter

-А (-Я)

де́ло (the business) 4 дела́
мо́ре (the sea) моря́

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Spelling Rules

These are generally to do with phonetics. Certain letters may not follow each other.

  • After the consonants Г, К, X and Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ we write :
Г кни́га (the book) кни́ги
К уро́к (the lesson) уро́ки
Х эпо́ха (the epoch) эпо́хи
Ж эта́ж (the floor) этажи́
Ч врач (the doctor) врачи́
Ш каранда́ш (the pencil) карандаши́
Щ плащ (the raincoat) плащи́
  • Masculin nouns ending in , feminine nouns ending in and all nouns ending in have a nominative plural in :

трамва́й (m) (the tram) – трамва́и
слова́рь (m) (the dictionary) – словари́
тётя (f) (the aunt) – тёти
тетра́дь (f) (the exercise book) – тетра́ди

IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS

  • Nouns that have a change to the stem:

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Masculine
друг (the friend) – друзья
челове́к (the person) – лю́ди
сын (the son) – сыновья́ etc…

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стул (the chair) – сту́лья
цвето́к (the flower) -– цветы́

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брат (the brother) – бра́тья
ребёнок (the child) – де́ти

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Feminine
дочь (the daughter) – до́чери
мать (the mother) – ма́тери etc…

Neuter
де́рево (the tree) – дере́вья
вре́мя (the time) – времена́, и́мя (the first name) – имена́ etc.
я́блоко (the apple) – я́блоки

  • Masculine nouns with a stressed -А (-Я) ending in the nominative plural:

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цвет (the colour) – цвета́
учи́тель (the teacher) – учителя́ ве́чер (the evening)  – вечера́
дом (the house) – дома́
по́езд (the train) – поезда́

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профе́ссор (the professor) – профессора́
а́дрес (the address) – адреса́
го́род (the town) – города́
па́спорт (the passport) – паспорта́
глаз (fhe eve) – глаза́ etc…

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  • As in English, certain nouns have no plural. This includes substances, feelings, etc. (things that cannot be counted):

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ры́ба (fish, the dish)
пи́во (beer)
соль (salt)
хи́мия (chemistry)

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молоко́ (milk)
мя́со (meat)
серебро́ (silver)
любо́вь (love)

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са́хар (sugar)
нефть (oil)
зо́лото (gold)
сча́стье (happiness)

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  • As in English, certain nouns have no singular. This includes words that in some way designate a pair, and certain other nouns:

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очки́ (glasses)
де́ньги (money)
су́тки (24 hours)

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часы́ (a clock or watch)
духи́ (perfume)
брю́ки (trousers)

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кани́кулы (the holidays)
но́жницы (scissors)
трусы́ (short trousers, pants)

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  • Certain neuter nouns of foreign origin never change their endings:

метро́ (the metro), ра́дио (the radio), такси́ (the taxi), пальто́ (the coat), меню́ (the menu)


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