Singular and plural nouns – Russian grammar

THE NOMINATIVE PLURAL

General rule: Noun endings change according to gender and number. The nominative plural endings are as follows:

Spelling Rules

These are generally to do with phonetics. Certain letters may not follow each other.

  • After the consonants Г, К, X and Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ we write :
Г кни́га (the book) кни́ги
К уро́к (the lesson) уро́ки
Х эпо́ха (the epoch) эпо́хи
Ж эта́ж (the floor) этажи́
Ч врач (the doctor) врачи́
Ш каранда́ш (the pencil) карандаши́
Щ плащ (the raincoat) плащи́
  • Masculin nouns ending in , feminine nouns ending in and all nouns ending in have a nominative plural in :

трамва́й (m) (the tram) – трамва́и
слова́рь (m) (the dictionary) – словари́
тётя (f) (the aunt) – тёти
тетра́дь (f) (the exercise book) – тетра́ди

IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS

  • Nouns that have a change to the stem:

Feminine
дочь (the daughter) – до́чери
мать (the mother) – ма́тери etc…

Neuter
де́рево (the tree) – дере́вья
вре́мя (the time) – времена́, и́мя (the first name) – имена́ etc.
я́блоко (the apple) – я́блоки

  • Masculine nouns with a stressed -А (-Я) ending in the nominative plural:

цвет (the colour) – цвета́
учи́тель (the teacher) – учителя́ ве́чер (the evening)  – вечера́
дом (the house) – дома́
по́езд (the train) – поезда́

профе́ссор (the professor) – профессора́
а́дрес (the address) – адреса́
го́род (the town) – города́
па́спорт (the passport) – паспорта́
глаз (fhe eve) – глаза́ etc…

  • As in English, certain nouns have no plural. This includes substances, feelings, etc. (things that cannot be counted):
  • As in English, certain nouns have no singular. This includes words that in some way designate a pair, and certain other nouns:
  • Certain neuter nouns of foreign origin never change their endings:

метро́ (the metro), ра́дио (the radio), такси́ (the taxi), пальто́ (the coat), меню́ (the menu)

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