Adverbs are invariable. They can be divided into several groups, according to their meaning.

  • Adverbs that indicate knowledge of a language are formed with the prefix по- and the suffix -ски: по-русски, по-французски, по-английски.

Вы понимаете по-русски? – Do you understand Russian?
Вы читаете по-французски? – Do you read French?
Вы говорите по-английски? – Do you speak English?

Adverbs of Quality

  • They answer the question «как?» (how?). They are formed by adding the suffix to the stem of the adjective: хороший adjective → хорош + adverb

Я плаваю (I can swim)  хорошо/плохо (well/badly).
Ты говоришь (You are talking) громко/тихо (loudly/quietly).
Он читает (He is reading) правильно/неправильно (correctly/incorrectly).
Она работает (She is working) быстро/медленно (quickly/slowly).
Мы переводим (We are translating) внимательно/невнимательно (carefully/carelessly).
Они танцуют (They are dancing) красиво/некрасиво (beautifully/badly).

Adverbs of quantity and degree

  • They answer the questions: сколько? (how many?), насколько? (to what extent?)

много (many, a lof)
мало (little, few)
немного (a little)
почти (almost)
очень (very)
слишком (too much)
чуть-чуть (Just a bit)
совсем (quite, entirely)

Много can refer to either a verb or a noun:

Я работаю много. I work a lot.
У меня много работы. I have a lot of work.

Очень usually refers to either an adjective or an adverb, but can also be used with verbs of feeling and emotion:

Она очень красивая женщина. – She is a very beautiful woman.
Он очень хорошо говорит по-русски. – Не speaks Russian very well.
Мой сын очень много читает. – My son reads an awful lot.
Я очень люблю готовить. – I really like cooking.
У меня очень болит голова. – I have a very bad headache.

Adverbs of time

  • They answer the questions: когда? (when?), как часто? (how often?), как долго? (for how long?)


Когда ты был в Киеве? – When were you in Kiev?
Я был там давно, в 1991 году. – I was there a long time ago, in 1991.


часто (often), редко (rarely), всегда (always), иногда (sometimes)

Анна часто ездит в Париж. – Anna often goes to Paris.
Он всегда советуется со своими друзьями. – Не always takes advice from his friends.


долго (for a long time), недолго (not long)

Ты долго жил в Киеве? – Did you live in Kiev for long?
Я жил там долго, три года. – I lived there for a long time, for three years.

Adverbs of place

  • They answer the questions: где? (where ?), куда? (where to?)
  • There are several very common adverbs: далеко (far away), недалеко (not far away), близко (nearby), рядом (close to), везде (everywhere)
  • Adverbs of place can indicate either where an action is taking place, or the direction of an action.


там (there), здесь (here), впереди (in front), слева (on the left), справа (on the right), сзади (behind), вверху / наверху (above), внизу (below), дома (at home)

Где ты работаешь? – Where do you work?
Дома. – At home.


туда (thereto), сюда (over here), вперёд (forward), налево (to the left), направо (to the right), назад (backwards), вверх / навёрх (up), вниз (down), домой (to home)

Куда ты идёшь? – Where are you going?
Домой. Home.

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